Depth psychology draws its roots from the work of the 20th century Swiss psychiatrist Carl G. Jung who focused the development of his psychological theories on understanding the unconscious mind. He believed that central to healing was the individual’s personal encounter with the unconscious, and the psychologist’s role was to help others explore and travel the depths of this mysterious realm that many consider inaccessible.
Jung also developed the concept of a collective unconscious, another major concept in depth psychology. This concept along with psychological principles based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis, and theories of Alfred Adler and Otto Rank form the basis of depth psychology’s emphasis on delving into a person’s psyche not only to correct dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors, but also to pursue ideals of social justice and equality for communities.
Adlerian psychology bases its thought on human interconnectedness and interdependence. This theory states that an individual’s welfare and self-actualization depends on the welfare of others. As one translates positive, healthy thoughts and behaviors into finding one’s passion and purpose in life, those actions can help others achieve a sense of personal fulfillment and well-being as well.
Ultimately, depth psychologists see the integration of the conscious and unconscious, two parts of the human psyche, as healthful and healing.
However, many different approaches to depth psychology exist because not every school of thought agrees on how to define the unconscious, nor how to access what exists there.
What is the collective unconscious? What are archetypes? Much like humans have hearts, kidneys, and lungs, Swiss psychiatrist Carl G. Jung theorized that they also possess a collective unconscious, given to them at birth - a layer of the unconscious from humanity’s primordial past.
Jung theorized that the unconscious is divided into the personal unconscious and the collective. The personal unconscious is composed of suppressed and forgotten memories, traumas, and experiences. It is personal, meaning that each individual has acquired, through living, unique material in his or her personal unconscious.
But everyone shares the same collective unconscious, a holding cell for religious, spiritual, and mythological symbols, a deep enclave of all hidden, universal truths; psychic structures or forms given to all people across the globe. Jung called these structures or forms archetypes.
Models of people, personalities and behaviors are all archetypes in psychology. The hero, for example, is an archetypical personality, and the careful, destructive plotting of a murderer is an archetypical behavior. Similarly, the mother-child relationship symbolizes people and relationships found in every culture.
Jung also believed that dreams provide a gateway for these archetypes to appear, and therefore a lot of Jungian psychological theory and practice rests on dream interpretation.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (or cognitive behavioral therapies or CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach, a talking therapy, that aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. The title is used in diverse ways to designate behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and to refer to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive research.
There is empirical evidence that CBT is effective for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders. Treatment is often manualized, with specific technique-driven brief, direct, and time-limited treatments for specific psychological disorders. CBT is used in individual therapy as well as group settings, and the techniques are often adapted for self-help applications. Some clinicians and researchers are more cognitive oriented (e.g. cognitive restructuring), while others are more behaviorally oriented (in vivo exposure therapy). Other interventions combine both (e.g. imaginal exposure therapy).
CBT was primarily developed through a merging of behavior therapy with cognitive therapy. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions found common ground in focusing on the "here and now", and on alleviating symptoms. Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy and effectiveness; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favored CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments. In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends CBT as the treatment of choice for a number of mental health difficulties, including post-traumatic stress disorder, OCD, bulimia nervosa, and clinical depression.